Uhlig’s Corrosion Handbook, Third Edition | by R. Winston Revie (ed) | 2011 | ISBN: 9780470080320. Chemistry Engineering Ebook. Corrosion Protection Methods. Principles of Accelerated Corrosion Testing.

Uhlig’s Corrosion Handbook, Third Edition
by R. Winston Revie (ed)
2011 (1288 pages)
Providing coverage of corrosion rates, corrosion behavior of materials, and engineering approaches to corrosion control for nonmetallic materials, this book is a reference for those concerned with the use of materials in applications where reliability and resistance to corrosion are important.

Uhlig’s Corrosion Handbook, Third Edition
Foreword to the Second Edition
Introductory Notes on Climate Change, Life-Cycle Design, and Corrosion of Steel
A. Climate Change
B. Life-Cycle Design

Part I – Basics of Corrosion Science and Engineering
Chapter 1 – Corrosion Failure Analysis with Case Histories
A. Introduction
B. Failure Analysis Procedures
C. General Approach for Conducting a Failure Analysis
D. Techniques Typically Used to Investigate Corrosion Failures

Chapter 2 – Cost of Metallic Corrosion
A. Introduction
B. Economic Effects of Metallic Corrosion in the United States
C. Corrosion Costs in Various Countries
D. Cost of Selected Corrosion Control Measures

Chapter 3 – Economics of Corrosion
A. Introduction
B. Corrosion—An Economic Problem
C. Notation and Terminology
D. Methods of Economic Analysis
E. Depreciation
F. Generalized Equations
G. Worked Examples and Applications

Chapter 4 – Lifetime Prediction of Materials in Environments
A. Background
B. Scope of Prediction
C. CBDA Step [1]: Environmental Definition
D. CBDA Step [2]: Defining Materials
E. CBDA Step [3]: Defining Modes (MDj) and Submodes (SDj)
F. CBDA Step [4]: Superposition
G. CBDA Step [5]: Define Failure and Action Levels
H. CBDA Step [6]: Establish a Statistical Framework
I. CBDA Step [7]: Accelerated Testing
J. CBDA Step [8]: Prediction
K. CBDA Step [9]: Monitoring, Inspection, and Feedback
L. CBDA Step [10]: Modification

Chapter 5 – Estimating the Risk of Pipeline Failure Due to Corrosion
A. Introduction
B. Characterizing Pipeline Corrosion
C. Pressure Resistance of Corroded Pipelines
D. Probability of Failure Due to Corrosion
E. Impact of Maintenance on Reliability
F. Application to Maintenance Planning
G. Summary

Chapter 6 – Designing to Prevent Corrosion
A. Introduction
B. Design-Related Causes of Corrosion

Chapter 7 – Simplified Procedure for Constructing Pourbaix Diagrams
A. Introduction
B. Thermodynamic Background
C. Construction of Diagrams
D. Applications of Pourbaix Diagrams

Chapter 8 – Pourbaix Diagrams for Multielement Systems
A. Introduction
B. Computation Using Gibbs Energy Minimization
C. Additional Element in the Aqueous Phase
D. Additional Element in the Metal Phase
E. Conclusions

Chapter 9 – Computation of Pourbaix Diagrams at Elevated Temperature
A. Introduction
B. Thermodynamic Data
C. Sn Pourbaix Diagram
D. Zr Pourbaix Diagrams
E. Zr—Sn Phase Diagram and Intermetallic Compounds
F. Conclusion

Chapter 10 – Galvanic Corrosion
A. Introduction
B. Definition
C. Factors in Galvanic Corrosion
D. Material Factors
E. Environmental Factors
F. Polarity Reversal
G. Preventive Measures
H. Beneficial Effects of Galvanic Corrosion
I. Fundamental Considerations

Chapter 11 – Dealloying
A. Definition
B. History
C. Mechanism
D. Control of Dealloying Corrosion
E. Inspection
F. Summary

Chapter 12 – Passivity
A. Introduction
B. Importance of Passivity to Corrosion Control Technology
C. Definitions
D. Corrosion Science and Engineering
E. Using Passivity to Control Corrosion

Chapter 13 – Localized Corrosion of Passive Metals
A. Introduction
B. Phenomenological Aspects
C. Stages of Localized Corrosion
D. Metastable Pitting: Pit Initiation and Repassivation
E. Pit Growth
F. Stability of Localized Corrosion
G. Summary

Chapter 14 – Stress Corrosion Cracking
A. Introduction
B. Environmental Conditions for SCC
C. Role of Stress in SCC
D. Prevention and Control of SCC

Chapter 15 – Hydrogen-Induced Cracking and Sulfide Stress Cracking
A. Introduction
B. Hydrogen-Induced Cracking
C. Sulfide Stress Cracking

Chapter 16 – Corrosion Fatigue
A. Introduction
B. Mechanistic Aspects of Corrosion Fatigue
C. Corrosion Fatigue Crack Initiation
D. Corrosion Fatigue Crack Propagation

Chapter 17 – Flow Effects on Corrosion
A. Introduction
B. Flow Basics Related to Corrosion
C. Flow Regime and Flow Corrosion

Chapter 18 – Erosion—Corrosion in Single- and Multiphase Flow
A. Introduction
B. Flow Conditions
C. Protective Films
D. Erosion—Corrosion Rate
E. Relative Roles of Erosion and Corrosion
F. Erosion-Corrosion Mechanisms

Chapter 19 – Carbon Dioxide Corrosion of Mild Steel
A. Introduction
B. Theory of Uniform CO2 Corrosion of Mild Steel in Aqueous Solutions
C. Factors Affecting Aqueous CO2 Corrosion of Mild Steel
D. Localized CO2 Corrosion of Mild Steel in Aqueous Solutions

Chapter 20 – High-Temperature Oxidation
A. Introduction
B. Thermodynamic Considerations
C. Kinetic Considerations
D. Defect Structures
E. Compact Scale Growth
F. Multilayered Scale Growth
G. Oxidation Resistance
H. Oxidation of Engineering Materials
I. Conclusions

Chapter 21 – Thermochemical Evaluation of Corrosion Product Stabilities for Alloys in Gases at High Temperature
A. Introduction
B. Thermodynamics
C. Kinetics
D. Software
E. Conclusion

Chapter 22 – A Procedure to Compute Equilibrium Gas-Phase Speciation for Use with Predominance Diagrams
A. Introduction
B. Homogeneous Equilibrium in an Ideal Gas Solution
C. Heterogeneous Equilibrium Involving a Pure Condensed Phase and an Ideal Gas
D. Conclusion

Chapter 23 – Atmospheric Corrosion
A. Introduction
B. Outdoor Atmospheres
C. Indoor Atmospheres
D. Atmospheric Corrosivity Factors and Their Measurement
E. Atmospheric Corrosion Models
F. Prevention and Control

Chapter 24 – Atmospheric Corrosion in Cold Regions
A. Introduction
B. Influence of Temperature and Soluble Salts
C. Definition of Cold Climate Regions
D. Arctic Climate and Corrosivity Studies
E. Subantarcttc Climatic Variation and Corrosivity
F. Antarctic Climate and Corrosivity Studies
G. Conclusions

Chapter 25 – Corrosion by Soils
A. Introduction
B. What is Soil?
C. Installation Scenarios
D. Factors that Influence Corrosion in Soil
E. Field Observations
F. Characterizing Soils
G. Models
H. Soil Effects on Cathodic Protection and Coatings
I. Summary

Chapter 26 – Microbial Degradation of Materials: General Processes
A. Introduction
B. Diversity of Microorganisms
C. Microbial Biofilms
D. Diagnosis and Confirmation
E. Material Degradation Processes
F. Preventive Measures
G. Conclusions

Chapter 27 – Corrosion Probability and Statistical Evaluation of Corrosion Data
A. Introduction
B. Corrosion Probability
C. Types of Probability Distribution Observed in Corrosion
D. Extreme-Value Statistics
E. Reliability Assessment and Probability Distribution
F. Concluding Remarks

Part II – Nonmetals
Chapter 28 – Corrosion of Refractories and Ceramics
A. Introduction
B. Corrosion of Industrial Refractories
C. Corrosion of Structural Ceramics
D. Preventing Corrosion

Chapter 29 – Corrosion of Glass
A. Introduction
B. Structure of Glass
C. Glass Corrosion Mechanisms
D. Effects of Glass Composition on Corrosion Kinetics
E. Surface Modification
F. Properties of Surface Layers
G. Effect of Fluid Medium
H. Biodegradation of Glasses
I. Special Glass Compositions and Applications
J. Methods for Improving Glass Surface Stability

Chapter 30 – Microbiological Degradation of Polymeric Materials
A. Introduction
B. Applications of Polymeric Materials
C. Microbial Biofilms on Polymers
D. Degradation Processes
E. Mechanisms of Degradation
F. Degradation Methodology
G. Plasticizers
H. Use of Biocides
I. Biodegradation and Health
J. Conclusions

Chapter 31 – Durability of Concrete
A. Introduction
B. Deterioration Caused by Freezing and Thawing Cycles
C. Deterioration Caused by Alkali—Aggregate Reactions
D. Deterioration Due to Sulfate Attack
E. Deterioration of Concrete in Seawater
F. Carbonation of Concrete
G. Concluding Remarks

Chapter 32 – Microbiological Corrosion of Concrete
A. Introduction
B. A Brief History
C. Contributions by Air Pollution
D. Microbial Processes
E. Corrosion of Rebar
F. Preventive Measures
G. Conclusions

Chapter 33 – Microbial Degradation of Wood
A. Introduction
B. Structure and Chemistry of Wood
C. Critical Requirements for Microbial Degradation of Wood
D. Wood-Inhabiting Microorganisms and Colonization Sequence
E. Diagnosing Decay
F. Further Reading

Chapter 34 – Use of Chemicals to Prevent Degradation of Wood
A. Introduction
B. Preservatives Currently Standardized in North America
C. Processes
D. Standards
E. Recommended Sources of Information

Part III – Metals
Chapter 35 – Metal—Matrix Composites
A. Introduction
B. MMC Types and Applications
C. Factors Influencing MMC Corrosion
D. Corrosion of MMC Systems
E. Corrosion Protection of MMCs
F. Summary

Chapter 36 – Environmental Degradation of Engineered Barrier Materials in Nuclear Waste Repositories
A. Introduction
B. National Programs
C. Environments and Materials
D. Degradation Mechanisms
E. Reducing or Anoxic Environments
F. Oxidizing Environments
G. Summary and Conclusions

Chapter 37 – Corrosion Behavior of Electrodeposited Nanocrystals
A. Introduction
B. Synthesis of Nanomaterials by Electrodeposition
C. Structure of Nanocrystalline Electrodeposits
D. Mechanical and Physical Properties of Nanomaterials
E. Corrosion Properties of Nanocrystalline Electrodeposits
F. Industrial Applications and Outlook

Chapter 38 – Corrosion of Shape Memory and Superelastic Alloys
A. Introduction
B. NiTi-Based Shape Memory Alloys
C. ß-Ti: Ni-Free Ti-Based Shape Memory Alloys
D. Cu-Based Shape Memory Alloys
E. Fe-Based Shape Memory Alloys
F. Magnetic Shape Memory and Shape Memory Alloys Other than Titanium Based

Chapter 39 – Microbiological Corrosion of Metallic Materials
A. Introduction
B. Microbial Biofilms
C. Aerobic Corrosion
D. Anaerobic Corrosion
E. Alternating Aerobic and Anaerobic Conditions
F. Corrosion by Microbial Exopolymers
G. Microbial Hydrogen Embrittlement
H. Corrosion by Other Microbial Metabolites
I. Preventive Measures
J. Conclusions

Chapter 40 – Electronic Materials, Components, and Devices
A. Introduction
B. Environment and Contamination
C. Integrated Circuits
D. Printed Circuit Boards
E. Hybrid Integrated Circuits and Multichip Modules
F. Contacts and Connectors
G. Other Failures and Failure Mechanisms

Chapter 41 – Corrosion of Electronics: Lead-Free Initiatives
A. Introduction
B. Lead-Containing Solders
C. Lead-Free Solders: Current Alternatives
D. Corrosion of Alternative Lead-Free Solders
E. Lead-Free Solders: Creep and Flux Residues
F. Summary

Chapter 42 – Metastable Alloys
A. Structural Characteristics
B. Corrosion-Resistant Alloys in Aqueous Solutions
C. Factors Determining the High Corrosion Resistance of Amorphous Alloys
D. Alloys Resistant to Aqueous Corrosion
E. Alloys Resistant to Sulfidizing/Oxidizing Environments at High Temperatures
F. Summary

Chapter 43 – Carbon Steel—Atmospheric Corrosion
A. Introduction
B. Environmental Factors
C. Corrosion Product Films
D. Corrosion Data

Chapter 44 – Carbon Steel—Corrosion in Freshwaters
A. Introduction
B. Environmental Factors
C. Localized Corrosion

Chapter 45 – Carbon Steel—Corrosion by Seawater
A. Introduction
B. Corrosion by Continuous Immersion in Seawater
C. Corrosion of Pilings
D. Effect of Velocity

Chapter 46 – Carbon Steel—Corrosion by Soils
A. Introduction
B. Disturbed Soils
C. Undisturbed Soils

Chapter 47 – Localized Corrosion of Iron and Steel
A. General Characteristics
B. Macrogalvanic Cells
C. Localized Corrosion by Other Causes
D. Maximum Possible Penetration Rate

Chapter 48 – Weathering Steel
A. Need for Weathering Steel
B. History
C. Alloying Elements
D. Monitoring of Rust Films
E. Design Parameters
F. Guidelines for the Use of Bare Weathering Steel
G. Advancement in Weathering Steel in the Past Decade

Chapter 49 – Corrosion of Steel in Concrete
A. Extent and Cost of Reinforcement Corrosion
B. Principles of Reinforcement Corrosion in Concrete
C. Chloride Ingress and the Corrosion Threshold
D. Carbonation of Concrete and Consequences of Corrosion
E. Methods of Detecting and Measuring Corrosion and Corrosion Damage in Concrete
F. Methods of Repairing and Treating Corrosion Damage

Chapter 50 – Ethanol Stress Corrosion Cracking of Carbon Steels
A. Introduction
B. Contributing Factors in Ethanol SCC
C. Mitigation of Ethanol SCC

Chapter 51 – Austenitic and Ferritic Stainless Steels
A. Discovery of Stainless Steels
B. Passive State
C. The Role of Alloying Elements
D. New Ferritic Stainless Steels
E. Summary and Conclusions

Chapter 52 – Duplex Stainless Steels
A. Definition of Duplex Stainless Steel
B. History
C. Metallography
D. Steel Grades within the Duplex Family
E. Mechanical and Physical Properties
F. Corrosion Resistance
H. Applications

Chapter 53 – Martensitic Stainless Steels
A. Introduction
B. Standard Alloys
C. Physical Metallurgy
D. Precipitation-Hardening Stainless Steels
E. Corrosion Resistance
F. Oxidation/Temperature Resistance
G. Typical Applications

Chapter 54 – Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys
A. Aluminum Properties and Alloys
B. Corrosion Behavior of Aluminum and its Alloys
C. Types and Forms of Corrosion
D. Influence of Metallurgical Characteristics on Corrosion Performance
E. Corrosion Prevention and Protection

Chapter 55 – Cobalt Alloys
A. Introduction
B. Alloys Designed for Wear Resistance
C. Alloys Designed for High-Temperature Use
D. Alloys Designed for Aqueous Corrosion and Wear Resistance

Chapter 56 – Copper and Copper Alloys
A. Introduction
B. Pitting Corrosion
C. Stress Corrosion Cracking
D. Atmospheric Corrosion
E. Corrosion in Waters
F. Corrosion in Gases

Chapter 57 – Lead and Lead Alloys
A. Introduction
B. General Corrosion Characteristics
C. Corrosion in Chemical Media
D. Galvanic Coupling
E. Mechanical and Metallurgical Factors
F. Atmospheric Corrosion
G. Corrosion of Buried Medium-Voltage Power Cable
H. Protection Measures
I. Lead Alloys

Chapter 58 – Magnesium and Magnesium Alloys
A. Production and Fabrication of Magnesium
B. Corrosion Forms and Types
C. Corrosion Characteristics Of Magnesium Alloy Systems
D. Rapid Solidification
E. Magnesium Finishing

Chapter 59 – Nickel and Nickel Alloys
A. Introduction
B. Nickel and Nickel-Base Alloys for Corrosion Applications
C. Alloying Elements and Their Effects in Nickel Alloys
D. Corrosion Behavior of “C” Alloys
E. Precipitation-Hardenable Alloys
F. High-Temperature Alloys

Chapter 60 – Tin and Tinplate
A. Introduction
B. Tin
C. Tinplate
D. Consequences of Corrosion

Chapter 61 – Titanium and Titanium Alloys
A. Introduction
B. Titanium Oxide Surfaces
C. General Corrosion
D. Pitting Corrosion
E. Crevice Corrosion
F. Environmentally Induced Cracking
G. Galvanic Corrosion
H. Erosion and Cavitation Resistance
I. Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion/Biofouling

Chapter 62 – Zinc
A. Introduction
B. Zinc Coatings
C. Electrochemical Nature of Corrosion
D. Corrosion Resistance
E. Corrosion Forms

Chapter 63 – Zirconium Alloy Corrosion
A. Introduction
B. Corrosion Behavior
C. Nuclear Fuel Cladding

Part IV – Corrosion Protection
Chapter 64 – Controlling Flow Effects on Corrosion
A. Introduction
B. Occurrence of Flow-Induced Corrosion
C. Methods for Controlling Flow Corrosion

Chapter 65 – Erosion—Corrosion: Recognition and Control
A. Introduction
B. Control of Turbulent Flow Attack
C. Control of Solid-particle Impingement Attack
D. Control of Liquid Droplet Impingement Attack
E. Control of Cavitation Attack
F. Control of Flow-enhanced Film Dissolution Attack
G. Predictive Modeling

Chapter 66 – Using Plastics, Elastomers, and Composites for Corrosion Control
A. Introduction
B. Overview of Plastics, Elastomers, and Composite Materials
C. Characterization of Polymers
D. Comparison of Polymeric Materials with Metals
E. Application of Polymers for Corrosion Control
F. Barrier Applications (Linings and Coatings)
G. Self-Supporting Structures: Process Vessels, Columns, and Piping
H. Seals and Gaskets
I. Failures and Failure Analysis
J. Condition Assessment, Fitness for Service and Repairs
K. Economic Data
L. Conclusion

Chapter 67 – Corrosion Control of Steel By Organic Coatings
A. Introduction
B. Fundamental Mechanisms of Corrosion Control by Coatings
C. Barrier Coatings
D. Sacrificial Coatings
E. Inhibitive Primers
F. Surface Preparation

Chapter 68 – Selection and Use of Coatings for Underground or Submersion Service
A. Introduction
B. Criteria for Selection of Coatings for Underground or Submersed Structures
C. Coating Types for Underground or Submerged Structures
D. Tests to Evaluate Underground or Submersion Coatings
E. Shielding versus Nonshielding Coatings
F. Conclusions

Chapter 69 – Engineering of Cathodic Protection Systems
A. Introduction
B. Operation of Cathodic Protection
C. Uses of Cathodic Protection
D. Types of Cathodic Protection
E. Galvanic Anode Design
F. Impressed Current Design
G. Design of Other Cathodic Protection Systems
H. Other Design Concerns
I. Criteria for Cathodic Protection

Chapter 70 – Stray-Current Analysis
A. Introduction
B. Detection of Stray Currents
C. Locating Source of Interference
D. Mitigation of Stray-Current Corrosion
E. Stray Current from AC Sources

Chapter 71 – Corrosion Inhibitors
A. Introduction
B. Classification of Inhibitors
C. Mechanistic Aspects of Corrosion Inhibition
D. Examples of Corrosion Inhibitors
E. Industrial Applications of Corrosion Inhibitors
F. Other Factors in Applying Inhibitors

Chapter 72 – Computer Technology for Corrosion Assessment and Control
A. Introduction
B. Computer-Based Corrosion Problem Solving: Classification and Background
C. Types of Computer Programs for Corrosion Control
D. Computer Tools: Evolutionary Development Trends
E. Internet and World Wide Web: New Frontiers in Computing
F. Computers in Corrosion Control: Critical Evaluation
G. Summary

Part V – Testing for Corrosion Resistance
Chapter 73 – Principles of Accelerated Corrosion Testing
A. Introduction
B. Purposes and Pitfalls of Testing
C. Development, Selection, and Execution of Meaningful Accelerated Corrosion Tests
D. Concluding Remarks

Chapter 74 – High-Temperature Oxidation—Testing and Evaluation
A. Introduction
B. Spectroscopy
C. Conclusions

Chapter 75 – Testing for Flow Effects on Corrosion
A. Introduction
B. Correlation of Test Data to Operating Facilities
C. Flow Effect Test Techniques
D. Low-Turbulence Flow Corrosion Test Methods

Chapter 76 – Accelerated Testing of Electronics to Simulate Long-Term Worldwide Environments
A. Introduction
B. Mixed Flowing Gas Testing
C. Corrosion of Electronic Equipment Worldwide
D. Accelerated Corrosion Testing to Simulate Worldwide Corrosion of Electronics
E. Summary

Chapter 77 – Testing for Environmentally Assisted Cracking
A. Introduction
B. Background
C. Constant-Load/Deflection Techniques
D. Dynamic Tests
E. Fracture Mechanics Tests
F. Definition of Laboratory Test Environments for Eac Evaluation
G. Summary

Chapter 78 – Test Methods for Wet H2S Cracking
A. Introduction
B. Test Procedures
C. Hydrogen Diffusivity Measurements

Chapter 79 – Atmospheric Corrosion Testings
A. Introduction
B. Purpose of Testing
C. Types of Atmospheres
D. Statistical Considerations
E. Hardware, Maintenance, and Practical Considerations

Chapter 80 – Galvanic Corrosion Testing
A. General
B. Standards

Chapter 81 – Testing of Aluminum, Magnesium, and Their Alloys
A. Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys
B. Magnesium and Magnesium Alloys

Chapter 82 – Testing of Polymeric Materials for Corrosion Control
A. Introduction
B. Polymers for Corrosion Control
C. Relevant Polymer Properties
D. Test Methods
E. Prediction of Polymer Service Life
F. Conclusions

Chapter 83 – Corrosion Testing of Refractories and Ceramics
A. Introduction
B. Drip Slag Testing (ASTM C-768)
C. Rotary-Kiln Slag Testing (ASTM C-874)
D. Oxidation Resistance at Elevated Temperatures (ASTM C-863)

Chapter 84 – Evaluation and Selection of Corrosion Inhibitors
A. Introduction
B. Laboratory Methodologies
C. Measuring Techniques
D. Evaluation of Compatibility
E. Field Evaluation

Chapter 85 – Practical Corrosion Prediction Using Electrochemical Techniques
A. Introduction
B. Thermodynamic Potential—pH Diagrams
C. Cyclic Potentiodynamic Polarization Scans for Predicting Localized Corrosion
D. Polarization Resistance Technique for Corrosion Prediction
E. Corrosion Prediction Using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy
F. Testing for Velocity-Sensitive Corrosion—Rotating Cylinder Electrode
G. Conclusions
H. List of Symbols (by Equation)

Chapter 86 – Electrochemical Noise
A. Introduction
B. Noise Measurements
C. General Corrosion
D. Localized Phenomena
E. Applications for Real-Time Corrosion Monitoring

Part VI – Corrosion Monitoring
Chapter 87 – Corrosion Monitoring
A. What is Corrosion Monitoring?
B. Corrosion Monitoring Techniques
C. Corrosion Monitoring Locations
D. Corrosion Monitoring Systems
E. Integration in Process Control
F. Modeling Corrosion Monitoring Response
G. Probe Design and Selection
H. Data Communication and Analysis Requirements

Chapter 88 – Diagnosing, Measuring, and Monitoring Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion
A. Introduction
B. Diagnosing
C. Measuring and Monitoring
D. Conclusions

Glossary of Selected Terms Used in Corrosion Science and Engineering

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